Capítulo 1. 3. Manejo del infarto agudo de miocardio complicado


  1- Fuster V, Badimon L, Badimon JJ, et al: The pathogenesis of coronary artery disease and the acute coronary syndromes: Parts 1 y 2. N Engl. J Med 326:242-250, 310-318, 1992.
  2- Yang Z, Arnet U, Bauer E, et al: Trombin-induced endothelium-dependent inhibition and direct activation of platelet-vessel wall interaction: Role of prostacyclin, nitric oxide, and thromboxane A2. Circulation 1994; 89:2266-1272.
  3- ISIS 2, Collaborative Group. Randomized trial of intravenous streptokinase, oral aspirin, both, or neither among 17187 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 1988; ii:349-60.
  4- FTT Collaborative Group. Indications for fibrinolytic therapy in suspected acute myocardial infarction: collaborative overview of early mortality and major morbidity results from all randomized trials of more than 1000 patients. Lancet 1994; 343: 311-322.
  5- GISSI. Effectiveness of intravenous thrombolytic treatment in acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 1986; 1: 397-402.
  6- ISIS 3: A randomized comparison of streptokinase vs tissue plasminogen activator vs anistreplase and of aspirin plus heparin vs aspirin alone among 41299 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 1992; 339: 753-70.
  7- The International Study Group. In-hospital mortality and clinical course of 20891 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction randomized between alteplase and streptokinase with or without heparin. Lancet 1990; 336: 71-5.
  8- The GUSTO Investigators. An randomized Trial comprising four thrombolytic strategies for acute myocardial infarction. N Engl. J Med 1993; 329: 673-82.
  9- GISSI. Long-term effects of intravenous thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction: final report   of the GISSI study.  Lancet 1987; 2:871-74.
 10- The GUSTO Angiographic Investigators. The effects of tissue plasminogen activator, streptokinase, or both on coronary-artery patency, ventricular function, and survival after acute myocardial infarction. N Engl. J Med 1993; 329: 1615-22.
 11- Brodie BR. Primary angioplasty in a comunitary hospital in the USA. Br Heart J 1995; 73: 411-2
 12- O’Keefe JH Jr, Bailey WL, Rutherford BD, Hartzler GO. Primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction in 1000 consecutive patients: results in an unselected population and high-risk subgroups. Am J Cardiol 1993; 72: 107G-115G.
 13- Zijlstra F, de Boer MJ, Hoorntje JCA, Reiffers S, Reiber JHC, Suryapranata H. A comparison of immediate coronary angioplasty with intravenous streptokinase in acute myocardial infarction. N Engl. J Med 1993; 328: 680-4.
 14- Gibbons RJ, Holmes DR, Reeder GS, Bailey KR, Hopfenspirger MR, Gersh BJ. Immediate angioplasty compared with the administration of a thrombolytic agent followed by conservative treatment for myocardial infarction. N Engl. J Med 1993; 328: 685-91.
 15- Grines CJ, Browne KF, Marco J, et al. A comparison of immediate angioplasty with thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction. N Engl. J Med 1993; 328: 673-9.
 16- Every NR, Parsons LS, Hlatky M, Martin JS, Weaver WD. A comparison of thrombolytic therapy with primary coronary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction. N Engl. J Med 1996; 335:1253-60. 
 17- Stone GW, Grines CL, Browne KF, et al. Predictors of in-hospital and 6-month outcome after acute myocardial infarction in the reperfusion era: the Primary Angioplasty in Myocardial Infarction (PAMI) Trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995; 25:370-7.
 18- Berger PB, Bell MR, Holmes DR, Gersh BJ, Hopfenspirger M, Gibbons R. Time to reperfusion with direct coronary angioplasty and thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1994; 73:231-6.
 19- Nunn C, O’Neill W, Rothbaum D, et al. Primary angioplasty for myocardial infarction improves long-term survival: PAMI-1 follow-up. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996; 27: Suppl A: 153A-154A.abstract.
 20- DeWood MA, Berg R Jr. The role of surgical reperfusion in myocardial infarction. Cardiol Clin 1984; 113-122.
 21- Late Study group. Late Assessment of Thrombolytic Efficacy (LATE) study with alteplase 6-24 hours after onset of acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 1993; 342: 759-766.
 22- Diaz R, Combaso A. EMERAS study results. Presented at the American College of Cardiology meeting; 1991. 
 23- Kirklin JK, Akins CV, Blackstone EH, et al. Guidelines and indications for coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Assessment of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Cardiovascular Procedures (Subcommittee on Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery). J Am Coll Cardiol. 1991; 17:543-589.
 24- Guidelines in acute myocardial infarction: pre-hospital and in-hospital management. The Task Force on the Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction of the European Society of Cardiology. European Heart Journal 1996; 17:43-63.
 25- Caracciolo EA, Davis KB, Sopko G, et al. Comparison of surgical and medical group survival in patients with left main coronary artery disease long-term CASS experience. Circulation. 1995; 91:2325-2334.
 26- Davis KB, Chaitman B, Ryan T, et al. Coronary Artery Surgery Study. Comparison of 15 years survival for men and women after initial medical o surgical treatment for coronary artery. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995; 25: 1000-1019.
 27- WHO MONICA Project. Myocardial infarction and coronary deaths in the World Health Organization MONICA project. Circulation 1994. 90: 583-612.
 28- Armstrong A, Duncan B, Oliver MF et al. Natural history of acute heart attacks: a community study. Br Heart J 1972; 34:67-80.
 29- Dellborg M, Eriksson P, Riha M, Swedberg K. Declining  hospital mortality  in acute myocardial  infarction. Eur Heart J 1994; 15:5-9.
 30- Norris RM, Caughey OE, Mercer CJ, Scott PJ. Prognosis after myocardial infarction. Six year follow-up. Br Heart J 1974; 36: 786-90.
 31- Lee KL, Woodlief LH, Topol EJ, et al. Predictors of 30-day mortality in the era of reperfusion for acute myocardial infarction: results from an international trial of 41021 patients. Circulation. 1995; 91:1659-1668.
 32- Grijseels EWM, Deckers JW, Hoes AW et al. Pre-hospital triage of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J 1995; 16: 325-32.
 33- Maggioni AP, Franzosi MG, Saantoro E, White H, Van de Werff F, Tognoni  G, the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Soppravivenza nell’Infarto Miocardio II (GISSI II) and the Inter national Study Group. Cerebrovascular events after myocardial infarction : analysis of the GISSI trial. N Engl. J Med. 1992; 327:1-6. 
 34- de Jaegere  PP, Arnold AA, Balk AH, Simoons ML. Intracranial haemorrhage in association with thrombolytic therapy: incidence and clinical predictive factors. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992; 19:289-94.
 35- Gore JM, Sloan M, Price TR, Young Raandall AM; Bovill E, Collen D, Forman S, Knatterud GL, Sopko  G, Terrin ML, and the TIMI investigators. Intracerebral haemorrhage, cerebral infarction, and subdural haematoma after acute myocardial infarction and thrombolytic therapy in the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Study. Circulation. 1991;  83:448-59.
 36- The TIMI Study Group. Comparison of invasive and conservative strategies after treatment with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator in acute myocardial infarction: results of the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) phase II trial. N Engl. J Med. 1989; 320:618-627.
 37- Simoons ML, Arnold A. Tailored thrombolytic therapy: a perspective. Circulation. 1993; 88:2556-64.
 38- Simoons ML, et al. Individual risk assessment for intracranial haemorrhage during thrombolytic therapy. Lancet 1993; 342: 1523-28.
 39- Mahaffey KW, Granger CB, Collins R, et al. Overview of randomized trials of intravenous heparin in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolytic therapy. Am J Cardiol. 1996; 77:551-556.
 40- Arnold A., Simoons ML. Thrombolytic therapy for evolving myocardial infarction needs an approach that integrate benefit and risk. European Heart Journal. 1995; 16, 1502-1509. 
 41-Ryan TJ et al. ACC/AHA Guidelines for the management of patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction. JACC vol 28, nº 5, november 1, 1996:1328-428.
 42- Kleiman NS, White HD, Ohman EM, et al. Mortality within 24 hours of thrombolysis for myocardial infarction: the importance of early reperfusion. The GUSTO Investigators. Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries. Circulation. 1994; 90:2658-2665.
 43- O’Neill W, Timmis GC, Bourdillon PD, et al. A prospective randomized clinical trial of intracoronary streptokinase versus coronary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction. N Engl. J Med 1986; 314:812-8.
 44-  Michels F, Yusuf  S.  Does PTCA in acute myocardial infarction affect  mortality and reinfarction rates ?  A quantitative overview (meta-analysis) of the randomized clinical trials. Circulation 1995; 91:476-85.
 45- Antman EM, Berlin JA. Declining incidence of ventricular fibrillation in myocardial infarction: implications for the prophylactic use of lidocaine. Circulation. 1992;86:764-773.
 46- Camphell RWF. Arrhytmias. In: Julian DG. Braunwald E. eds. Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction. London. England: WB Saunders Co Ltd: 1994:223-240.
 47- Volpi A, Cavalli A, Santoro E, et al. Incidence and prognosis of secondary ventricular fibrillation in acute myocardial infarction: evidence for a protective effect of thrombolytic therapy. GISSI Investigators. Circulation. 1990. 82: 1279-1288
 48- Behar S, Goldbourt U, Reicher-Reiss H, et al. Prognosis of acute myocardial infarction complicated by primary ventricular fibrillation: principal investigators of the SPRINT Study. Am J Cardiol. 1990; 66:1208-1211.
 49- Solomon SD, Ridker PM, Antman EM. Ventricular arrhythmias in trials of thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction.: a meta-analysis. Circulation. 1993; 88: 2575-2581.
 50- Berger PB, Roucco NA, Ryan TJ, et al. Incidence and significance of ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation in the absence of hypotension or heart failure in acute myocardial infarction treated with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator: results from the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Phase II Trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993; 22:1773-1779.
 51- Braat SH, Ramentol M, Halders S, et al. Reperfusion with streptokinase of an occluded right coronary artery: effects on early and late right and left ventricular ejection fraction. Am Heart J. 1987; 113:257-260.
 52- Schuler G, Hofman M, Schwarz F, et al. Effect of successful thrombolytic therapy on right ventricular function in acute inferior wall myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1984; 54:951-957.
 53- Moreyra AE, Suh C, Porway MN, et al. Rapid hemodynamic improvement in right ventricular infarction after coronary angioplasty. Chest. 1988; 94:197-199.
 54- Chatterjee K. Complications of acute myocardial infarction. Curr Probl Cardiol 1993; 18:1-79.
 55- MacMahon S, Collins R, Peto R, Koster RW, Yusuf S. Effects of prophylactic lidocaina in suspected acute myocardial infarction: an overview of results from the randomized, controlled trials. JAMA. 1988:260:1910-1916. 
 56- Campell RWF. Arrhythmias. In: Julian DG. Braunwald E. eds. Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction. London. England: WB Saunders Co Ltd: 1994: 223-240.
 57- Nordrehaug JE, von der Lippe G. Hipokalemia and ventricular fibrillation in acute myocardial infarction. Br Heart J. 1983:50:525-529.
 58- Higham PD, Adams PC, Murray A, Campell RW. Plasma potassium, serum magnesium and ventricular fibrillation: a prospective study. Q J Med. 1993:86:609-617.
 59- Woods KL, Fletcher S, Roffe C, Haider Y. Intravenous magnesium sulphate in suspected acute myocardial infarction: the second Leicester intravenous Magnesium Intervention Trial (LIMIT-2). Lancet 1992; 339: 1553-58.
 60- Woods KL, Fletcher S. Long-term outcome after intravenous magnesium sulphate in suspected acute myocardial infarction: the second Leicester Intravenous Magnesium Intervention Trial (LIMIT-2). Lancet. 1994; 343: 816-819. 
 61- Woods KL, Barnett DB. Magnesium in acute myocardial infarction. BMJ 1995; 310: 1969-70. 
 62- Shechter M, Hod H, Chouraqui P, Kaplinsky E, Rabinowitz B. Magnesium therapy in acute myocardial infarction when patients are not candidates for thrombolytic therapy. Am J Cardiol. 1995; 75: 321-323. 
 63- ISIS-4 (International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group: a randomized factorial trial assessing early oral captopril, oral mononitrate, and intravenous magnesium sulphate in 58.050 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 1995; 345: 1115-1122.
 64- Antman EM. Magnesium in acute MI: timing is critical. Circulation. 1995; 92: 2367-2372.
 65- Antman EM. Randomized trial of magnesium in acute myocardial infarction: big numbers do not tell the whole story. Am J Cardiol. 1995; 75: 391-393.
 66- Nademanee K, Taylor RD, Wailey WM. Management and long-term outcome of patients with electrical storm. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995:25:175A. Abstract.
 67- Scheinman MM, Levin JH, Cannom DS, et al, for the Intravenous Amiodarone Multicenter Investigators Group. Dose-ranging study of intravenous amiodarone in patients with life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhytmias. Circulation. 1995; 92:3264-72.
 68- Buring JE, Glynn RJ, Hennekens CH. Calcium channel blockers and myocardial infarction: a hypothesis formulated but not yet tested. JAMA. 1995; 274:654-655.
 69- Behar S, Zahavi Z, Goldbourt U, Reicher-Reiss H. Long-term prognosis of patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation complicating acute myocardial infarction: SPRINT Study Group. Eur Heart J. 1992; 13:45-50.
 70- Kadish A, Morady F. The use of intravenous amiodarone in acute therapy of life-threatening tachyarrhythmias. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1989; 31: 281-294.
 71- Waldo AL. An approach to therapy of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias: an algorithm versus individualized therapy. Clin Cardiol. 1994; 17: II-21-II-26. 
 72- Mavric Z, Zaputovic L, Matana A, et al. Prognostic significance of complete atrioventricular block in patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction with and without right ventricular involvement. Am Heart J 1990; 119:823-8
 73- Braat SH, de Zwaan C, Brugada P, Coenegracht JM, Wellens HJJ. Right ventricular involvement with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction identifies high risk of developing atrioventricular nodal conduction disturbances. Am Heart J 1984; 107:1183-7.
 74- Goldberg RJ, Zevallos JC, Yarzebski J et al. Prognosis of acute myocardial infarction complicated by complete heart block (The Worcester Heart Attack Study). Am J Cardiol 1992;69:1135.
 75- Topol EJ, Goldschlager N, Ports T y cols.: Hemodynamic benefit of atrial pacing in right ventricular myocardial infarction. Ann Intern Med 1982; 96: 594-597.
 76- Hidman MC, Wagner GS, Jaro M et al: The clinical significance  of bundle branch block complicating acute myocardial infarction: I Clinical characteristics, hospital mortality, and one year follow-up. Circulation 1978; 58:935.
 77- Bates RJ, Beutleu S, Resnekov L, et al: Cardiac rupture: Challenge in diagnosis and management. Am J Card 1977; 40:429.
 78- Reeder DS. Identification and treatment of complications of acute myocardial infarction. Mayo Clin Proc 1995 sep. 70 (9): 880-884. 
 79- Cohn LH. Surgical management of acute and chronic cardiac mechanical complications due to myocardial infarction. Am Heart J. 1981; 102: 1049-1060.
 80- Sakai K, Sakaki S, Hirata N, Baba Y, Miyamato Y, Nakano S, Matsuda H. Treatment for cardiac rupture following acute myocardial infarction. Kyobu Geka. 1993 Nov. 46(12). 1039-43 (Abstract).
 81- Lavie CJ, Gersh BJ. Mechanical and electrical complications of acute myocardial infarction. Mayo Clin Proc 1990; 65:709-33.
 82- Nakamura F, Minamino T, Higashino Y, Ito H, Fujii K, Fujita T, Nagano M, Higaki J, Ogihara T. Cardiac free wall rupture in acute myocardial infarction: ameliorative effect of coronary reperfusion. Clin Cardiol. 1992 Apr. 15(4):244-50.
 83- Pollak H, Nobis H, Mlczoch J. Frequency of left ventricular free wall rupture complicating acute myocardial infarction since advent of thrombolysis. Am J Cardiol. 1994; 74: 184-186.
 84- Becker RC, Gore JM, Lambrew C, et al. Composite view of cardiac rupture in the United States National Registry of Myocardial Infarction. J Am Col Cardiol. 1996; 27: 1321-1326.
 85- Biorck G, Mogensen PL, Nyquist O y col: Studies of myocardial rupture with tamponade in acute myocardial infarction: Clinical features. Chest 1972; 61:4.
 86- Morocutti G, Fontanelli A, Bernardi G, Feruglio A. Identification of patients at risk of post-infarction heart rupture. Clinical and therapeutic characteristics of 121 consecutive cases and review of the literature. Minerva Cardioangiol 1995 Apr 43(4):117-26.
 87- Honan MB, Harrell FE Jr, Reimer KA, Califf RM, Mark DB, Pryor DB, Hlatky MA: Cardiac rupture, mortality and the timing of thrombolytic therapy: a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1990 Aug. 16 (2):359-67.
 88- Nakatsuchi Y, Minamino T, Fujii K, Negoro S. Clinicopathological characterisation of cardiac free wall rupture in patients with acute myocardial infarction: difference between early and late phase rupture. Int J Cardiol. 1994 Dec. 47 (1 Suppl): S33-8.
 89- Cortadellas J, Figueras J. Does reperfusion modify the risk of heart rupture? Effects of early reperfusion. Rev Esp Cardiol. 1992. 45 Suppl 2p:66-71.
 90- Shah PK. The role of thrombolytic therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction presenting later than six hours after the onset of symptoms. Am J Cardiol. 1991 Nov 4. 68(12):72C-77C.
 91- Becker RC, Charlesworth A, Wilcox RG, et al. Cardiac rupture associated with thrombolytic therapy: impact of time to treatment in the LATE Assessment of Thrombolytic Efficacy (LATE) study. J AM Coll Cardiol. 1995 Apr. 25(5):1063-8.
 92- Ohman EM, Topol EJ, Califf RM, Bates ER, Ellis SG, Kereiakes DJ, George BS, Samaja JK, Kline E, Sigmon KN, et al. An analysis of the cause of early mortality after administration of thrombolytic therapy. The Thrombolysis Angioplasty in Myocardial Infarction Study Group. Coron Artery Dis. 1993 nov. 4(11):957-64.
 93- Peuhkurinen K, Risteli L, Jounela A, Risteli J. Changes in interstitial collagen metabolism during acute myocardial infarction treated with streptokinase or tissue plasminogen activator. Am Heart J. 1996 Jan. 131(1):7-13.
 94- Kawano H, Miyauchi K, Okada R, et al. Histopathological study of cardiac rupture following myocardial infarction with and without thrombolytic therapy. J Cardiol. 1994 Jul-Aug. 24 (4): 249-255.
 95- Oliva PB, Hammill SC, Edwards WD. Cardiac rupture, a clinically predictable complication of acute myocardial infarction: report of 70 cases with clinicopathologic correlations. J AM Coll Cardiol. 1993 Sep. 22(3):720-6.
 96- Reeder GS, Seward JB, Tajik AJ: The role of two-dimensional echocardiography in coronary artery disease: A critical  reappraisal. Mayo Clin Proc 1982; 57:247.
 97- Lopez Sendon J, Gonzalez A, Lopez de Sa E, et al. Diagnosis of subacute ventricular rupture after acute myocardial infarction. Sensitivity and specificity of clinical, hemodynamic and electrocardiographic criteria. J Am Cardiol 1992. 19: 1145-53.
 98- Pollak H, Diez W, Spiel R, Enenkel W, Mlczoch J. Early diagnosis of subacute free wall rupture complicating acute myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J. 1993; 14: 640-48.
 99- Natarajan MK, Salerno TA, Burke B, et al. Chronic false aneurysms of the left ventricle: management revisited. Can J Cardiol. 1994 Nov; 10(9):927-931. 
100- Lavie CJ, Gersh BJ, Mechanical and electrical complications of acute myocardial infarction. Mayo Clin Proc. 1990; 65: 709-33.
101- Sanders RJ, Kern WH, Blount SG. Perforation of the interventricular  septum complicating acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J. 1956; 51: 736. 
102- Westaby S, Parry A, Ormerod O, Gooneratne P, Pillai R. Thrombolysis and postinfarction ventricular septal rupture. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1992; 104: 1506-1509.
103- Lemery R, Smith HC, Giuliani ER, Gersh BJ. Prognosis in rupture of the ventricular septum after acute myocardial infarction and role of early surgical intervention. Am J Cardiol 1992; 70:147-151.
104- Skillington PD, Davies RH, Luff AJ et al. Surgical treatment for infarct-related ventricular septal defects: improved early results combined with analysis of late functional status. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1990; 99:798-808.
105- Muerhrcke DD, Daggett WM, Jr, Buckley MJ, et al. Postinfarct ventricular septal defect repair: effect of coronary artery bypass grafting. Ann Thorac Surg. 1993; 55:876-882.
106- Piwnica A. Update in surgical treatment of acute postinfarction ventricular septal defects and myocardial regurgitation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 1995; 9:117-19.
107- Heikkila J. Mitral incompetence complicating acute myocardial infarction. Br Heart J. 1967; 29:162.
108- Tcheng JE, Jackman JD, Nelson CL, et al. Outcome of patients sustaining acute ischemic mitral regurgitation during myocardial infarction. An Intern Med. 1992; 117:18-24.
109- Estes EH, Dalton FM, Entman ML, et al. The anatomy and blood supply of the papillary muscles of the left ventricle. Am Heart J. 1966; 71:356.
110- Forrester JS, Diamond G, Freedman S, et al. Silent mitral insufficiency in acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 1971; 44:877.
111-Tepe NA, Edmunds LH Jr. Operation for acute postinfarction mitral insufficiency and cardiogenic shock. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1985; 89:525-530.
112- Kishon Y, Oh JK, Schaff HV, et al. Mitral valve operation in post-infarction rupture of a papillary muscle: immediate results and long-term follow-up of 22 patients. Mayo Clin Proc. 1992; 67: 1023-1030.
113- Hendren WG, Nemec JJ, Lytle BW, et al. Mitral valve repair for ischemic mitral insufficiency. Ann Thorac Surg. 1991; 52:1246-1251.
114- Mills NL, Everson CT, Hockmuth DR. Technical advances in the treatment of the ventricular aneurysm. Ann Thorac Surg. 1993; 55:792-800.
115- Reimer KA, Lowe JE, Rasmussen MM et al. The wave front phenomenon of ischemic cell death. Circulation 1977; 56:786.
116- Betriu A, Castaner A, Ganz GA et al. Angiographic finding one month after myocardial infarction: A prospective study of 259 survivors. Circulation 1982; 65:1099.
117: Wackers FJ, Lie KI, Becker AE, et al. Coronary artery disease in patients dying from cardiogenic shock or congestive heart failure in the setting of acute myocardial infarction. Br Heart J 1976; 38:906.
118- Swan HJC, Forrester JS, Diamond G, et al. Hemodynamic spectrum of myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock. Circulation 1972; 45:1097.
119- Tennant R, Wiggers CJ. The effect of coronary occlusion on myocardial contraction. Am J Physiol 1935; 112:351.
120- Lew WYW, LeWinter MM. Acute myocardial infarction: Pathophysiology, in Chatterjee K, Parmley WW (eds): Cardiology, vol 2, ch 66, Philadelphia, JB Lippincott, and Grover Medical Publishing, 1991, pp 7112-7133.
121- Braunwald E, Kloner RA. The stunned myocardium: Prolonged, postischemic ventricular dysfunction. Circulation 1982; 66:1146-1149.
122- Erlebacher JA, Weiss JL, Weisfeldt M, et al. Early dilation of the infarcted segment in acute transmural myocardial infarction.: Role of infarct expansion in acute left ventricular enlargement. J Am Coll Cardiol 1984; 4:201-208.
123- Killip T, Kimball JT. Treatment of myocardial infarction in a coronary care unit: A two year experience with 250 patients. Am J Cardiol 1967; 20:457-464.
124- Forrester JS, Diamond GA, Chatterjee K, et al. Medical therapy of acute myocardial infarction by application of hemodynamic subsets (I). N Engl. J Med. 1976; 295:1356.
125- Forrester JS, Diamond GA, Chatterjee K, et al. Medical therapy of acute myocardial infarction by application of hemodynamic subsets (II). N Engl. J Med. 1976; 295:1404-1413.
126- Dikshit K, Vyden JK, Forrester JS, et al. Renal and extrarenal hemodynamic effects of furosemide in congestive heart failure after acute myocardial infarction. N Engl. J Med. 1973; 288:1087.
127-  Bussmann WD, Passet D, Seidel W, et al. Reduction of CK and CK-MB, indexes of infarct size, by intravenous nitroglycerin. Circulation 1981.63: 615-622.
128- Chatterjee K, Parmley WW: The role of vasodilatador therapy in heart failure. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1977; 19:301-325.
129- Come PC, Pitt B. Nitroglycerin-induced severe hypotension and bradycardia in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 1976; 54:624-628.
130- Chiariello M, Gold HK, Leinbach RC et al. Comparison between the effects of nitroprusside and nitroglycerin on ischemic injury during acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 1976; 54:766-773.
131- Cohn JN, Franciosa JA, Francis GD, et al. Effects of short-term infusion of sodium nitroprusside on mortality rate in acute myocardial infarction complicated by left ventricular failure: Results of Veterans Administration Cooperative. N Engl. J Med. 1982; 306:1129-1135.
132- Durrer JD, Lie Kl, VanCapelle FRJ, et al. Effects of sodium nitroprusside on mortality in acute myocardial infarction. N Engl. J Med. 1982; 306:1121-1128.
133- Shah PK, Swan HJC. Complications of acute myocardial infarction, en Chatterjee K, Parmely WW (eds.): Cardiology. Philadelphia, Lippincott-Grower, 1991, pp 7179-7203.
134- Dell’Italia LJ, Starling MR, Crawford MH, et al. Right ventricular infarction: identification by hemodynamic measurements before and after volume loading and correlation with noninvasive techniques. J Am Cardiol. 1984; 4:931-939.
135- Cohn JN, Guiha NH, Broder MI, Limas CJ. Right ventricular infarction: clinical and hemodynamic features. Am J Cardiol. 1974; 33:209-214.
136- Crexells C, Chatterjee K, Forrester JS, et al. Optimal level of left heart filling pressures in acute myocardial infarction. N Engl. J Med. 1973; 289:1263.
137- Kinch JW, Ryan TJ. Right ventricular infarction. N Engl. J Med. 1994; 330:1211-1217.
138- Alonso DR, Scheids S, Post M, et al. Pathophysiology of cardiogenic shock: Quantification of myocardial necrosis, clinical, pathologic and electrocardiographic correlation. Circulation. 1973; 48:588.
139- Gutovitz AL, Sobel BE, Robert R. Progressive nature of myocardial injury in selected patients with cardiogenic shock. Am J Cardiol. 1978; 41:469.
140- Chatterjee K: Digitalis, catecholamines and other positive inotropic agents, en Chatterjee K, Parmley WW (eds.): Cardiology. Philadelphia, Lippincott-Grover, 1991, pp 2.34-2.74.
141- Francis GS, Sharma B, Hodges M. Comparative hemodynamic effects of dopamine and dobutamine in patients with acute cardiogenic circulatory collapse. Am Heart J. 1982; 103:995-1000.
142- Lee L, Erbel R, Brown TM, et al. Multicenter registry of angioplasty therapy of cardiogenic shock: initial and long-term survival. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1991; 17:599-603.
143- Shawl FA, Domanski MJ, Hernandez TJ, et al. Emergency percutaneous cardiovascular bypass support in cardiogenic shock from acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1989; 64:967-970.
144- Lincoff AM, Popma JJ, Bates ER, et al. Successful coronary angioplasty in two patients with cardiogenic shock using the Nimbus Hemopump support device. Am Heart J. 1990; 120:970-972.
145- Gacioch GM, Ellis SG, Lee L, et al. Cardiogenic shock complicating myocardial infarction: the use of coronary angioplasty and the integration of the mew support devices into management. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992;19:647-653.
146- Smalling RW, Sweeney M, Lachterman B, et al. Transvalvular assistance in cardiogenic shock secondary to acute myocardial infarction: evidence for recovery from near fatal myocardial stunning. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1994; 23:637-644.
147- Farrar DJ, Hill JD, Univentricular and biventricular Thoratec VAD support as a bridge to transplantation. Ann Thorac Surg. 1993; 55:276-282.
148- Joyce LD, Johnson KE, Toninato CJ, et al. Results of the first 100 patients who received Symbion total artificial hearts as a bridge to cardiac transplantation. Circulation, 1989; 80(suppl III):III-192-III-201.
149- Lee L, Bates ER, Pitt B, et al. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty improves survival in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. Circulation. 1988; 78: 1345-1351.
150- Bengtson JR, Kaplan AJ, Pieper KS, et al. Prognosis in cardiogenic shock after acute myocardial infarction in the interventional era. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992; 20: 1482-1489.
151- Califf RM, Topol EJ, George BS, et al. Characteristics and outcome of patients in whom reperfusion with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator fails: results of the Thrombolysis and Angioplasty in Myocardial Infarction. Circulation. 1988; 77:1090-1099.
152- Goldberg RJ; Gore JM, Alpert JS, et al. Cardiogenic shock after acute myocardial infarction. Incidence and mortality from a community-wide perspective, 1975 to 1988. N Engl. J Med 1991; 1117-1122.
153- Hochman JS, Boland J, Sleeper LA, et al. Current spectrum of cardiogenic shock and effects of early revascularization on mortality: results of an International Registry. SHOCK Registry Investigators. Circulation. 1995; 91:873-881.
154- Beyersdorf F, Buckberg GD. Myocardial protection in patients with acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock. Semim Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1993: 5:151-161.
155- Akins CW. 1987; early and late results following emergency isolated myocardial revascularization during hypothermic fibrllatory arrest. Up-dated in 1994 by Cary W, Akins MD. Ann Thorac Surg. 1994; 58:1205-1206.
156- Allen BS, Rosenkranz E, Buckberg GD, et al. Studies of prolonged acute regional ischemia, VI: myocardial infarction with ventricular power failure. A medical/surgical emergency requiring urgent revascularization with maximal protection of remote muscle. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1989; 98:681-703.
157- Champagnac D, Claudel JP, Chevalier P, et al. Primary cardiogenic shock during acute myocardial infarction: results of emergency cardiac transplantation. Eur Heart J. 1993;14:925-929. 
158- Zehender M, Kasper W, Kauder E, et al. Right ventricular infarctions an independent predictor of prognosis after acute myocardial infarction. N Engl. J Med. 1993; 328:981-988.
159- Berger PB, Ryan TJ. Inferior myocardial  infarction: high-risk subgroups. Circulation. 1990;81:401-411.
160- Weinshel AJ, Isner JM, Salem DN, et al. The coronary anatomy of right ventricular infarction: relationship between the site of right coronary artery occlusion and origin of the right ventricular free wall branches. Circulation. 1983;68(suppl III):III-351.
161- Andersen HR, Falk E, Neilsen D. Right ventricular infarction: frequency, size and topography in coronary heart disease: a prospective study comprising 107 consecutive autopsies from a coronary care unit. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1987;10:1223-1232.
162- Lee FA. Hemodynamic of the right ventricle in normal and diseased states. Cardiol Clin. 1992;10:59-67.
163- Cross CE. Right ventricular pressure and coronary flow. Am J Physiol. 1962;202:12-16.
164- Setaro JF, Cabin HS. Right ventricular infarction. Cardiol Clin. 1992; 10:69-90.
165- Isner JM, Robert WC. Right ventricular infarction complicating left ventricular infarction secondary to coronary heart disease. Am J Cardiol. 1978; 42:885-894.
166- Goldstein JA, Vlahakes GJ, Verrier DE, et al. The role of right ventricular systolic dysfunction and elevated intrapericardial pressure in the genesis of low output in experimental right ventricular infarction. Circulation. 1982; 65:522.
167- Goldstein JA, Barzilai B, Rosamond TL, et al. Determinants of hemodynamic compromise with severe right ventricular infarction. Circulation. 1990; 82:359-368.
168- Goldstein JA, Tweddell JS, Barzilai B, et al. Importance of left ventricular function and systolic ventricular interaction to right ventricular performance during acute right heart ischemia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992; 19:704-711.
169- Dell’Italia LJ, Starling MR, O’Rourke RA. Physical examination for exclusion of hemodynamically important right ventricular infarction. Ann Intern Med. 1983; 99:608-611.
170- Butman S, Olson HG, Aronow WS, et al. Remote right ventricular infarction mimicking chronic pericardial constriction. Am Heart J. 1982; 103:912-913.
171- Robalino BD, Whitlow PL, Underwood DA, et al. Electrocardiographic manifestations of right ventricular infarction. Am Heart J. 1989; 118:138-144.
172- Ivor L, Frediman K, L. Rodriguez, et al. ST elevations in leads V1 to V5 may caused by right coronary artery occlusion and acute right ventricular infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1984; 53:991-996.
173- Braat SH, Brugada P, Zwaan C, et al. Value of electrocardiogram in diagnosing right ventricular involvement in patients with an acute inferior wall myocardial infarction. Br Heart J. 1983; 49:368-372.
174- Manno BV, Bemis CE, Carver J, et al. Right ventricular infarction complicated by right to left shunt. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1983; 1:554-557.
175- Goldstein JA, Vlahakes GJ, Verrier DE, et al. Volume loading improve low cardiac output in experimental right ventricular infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1983; 2:270-278.
176- Dell’Italia LJ, Starling MR, Blumhardt R, et al. Comparative effects of volume loading, dobutamine, and nitroprusside in patients with predominant right ventricular infarction. Circulation. 1985; 72:1327-1335.
177- Love JC, Haffajee CI, Gore JM, et al. Reversibility of hypotension and shock by atrial or atrioventricular sequential pacing in patients with right ventricular infarction. Am Heart J. 1984; 108:5-13.
178- Sugiura T, Iwasaka T, Takahashi N, et al. Atrial fibrillation in inferior wall Q-wave myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1991; 67:1135-1136.
179- Fantidis P, Castejon R, Fernandez Ruiz A, et al. Does a critical hemodynamic situation develop from right ventriculotomy and free wall infarct or from small changes in dysfunctional right ventricle afterload?. J Cardiovasc Surg. 1992; 33:229-234.
180- Berger PB, Ruocco NA, Ryan JT, et al. Frequency and significance of right ventricular dysfunction during inferior wall left ventricular myocardial infarction treated with thrombolytic therapy (results from the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) II trial): the TIMI Research Group. Am J Cardiol. 1993; 71:1148-1152.
181- Polak JF, Holman BL, Wynne J, et al. Right ventricular ejection fraction: a indicator of increased mortality in patients with congestive failure associated with coronary disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1983; 2:217-224.
182- Klein HO, Tordjman T, Ninio R, et al. The early recognition of right ventricular infarction: diagnostic accuracy of the electrocardiographic V4R lead. Circulation. 1983; 67:558-565.
183- Schuler G, Hofmann M, Schwarz F, et al. Right ventricular performance may determine outcome after thrombolysis in inferior infarction. Circulation. 1983; 68: 101-109.
184- Lloyd EA, Gersh BJ, Kennelly BM. Hemodynamic spectrum of “dominant” right ventricular infarction in 19 patients. Am J Cardiol. 1981; 48:1016-1022.
185- Bellamy GR, Rasmussen HH, Nasser FN, et al. Value of two-dimensional echocardiography, electrocardiography, and clinical signs in detecting right ventricular infarction. Am Heart J. 1986; 112:304-309. 
186- Metzer RS, Visser CA, Fuster V. Intracardiac thrombi and systemic embolization. Ann Intern Med. 1986; 104: 689-698.
187- Reeder GS, Gers BJ. Modern management  of acute myocardial infarction. Curr Probl Cardiol. 1997 march-april; 159-245.
188- López de Sa E, López-Sendón J, Perdigao C, et al. on behalf of IBERIAN multicenter study. Influence of thrombolytic therapy  in the incidence of left ventricular thrombosis after acute anterior myocardial infarction. Prospective Multicenter Study. Congreso Mundial de Cardiología. Berlin. Septiembre 1994.
189- Eigler N, Maurer C, Shah PK. The effect of early systemic thrombolytic therapy on left ventricular mural thrombus formation in acute anterior myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1984; 54:261.
190- Asinger RW, Mikell FL, Elsperger J. Incidence of ventricular thrombosis after acute myocardial infarction: serial evaluation by two-dimensional echocardiography. N Engl. J Med. 1981; 305:297.
191- Resnekov L, Chediak J, Hirsh J, et al. Antithrombotic agents in coronary artery disease. Chest. 1989; 95 Supl 1: 52S-57S.
192- The SCATI Group. Randomized controlled trial of subcutaneous calcium-heparin in acute myocardial infarction: the SCATI (Studio della Calciparina nell-Angina e nella Thrombosis ventricolare nell’Infarto) group. Lancet 1989; 2:182-186.
193- Fuster V. Low-dose coumadin plus low-dose aspirin following myocardial infarction (CARS Trial). Presented at the American College of Cardiology Scientific Session; March 1996: Orlando. Fla.
194- Chesebro JH, Fuster V. Antithrombotic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: mechanisms and prevention of deep venous, left ventricular, and coronary artery thromboembolism. Circulation. 1986; 74 (suppl III):1-10.
195- Turpie AG, Gent M, Cote R, et al. A low-molecular weight heparinoid compared with unfractionated heparin in the prevention of deep vein thrombosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke: a randomized, double blind  study. Ann Intern Med. 1992; 117:353-357.
196- Tofler GH, Muller JE, Stone PH, et al. Pericarditis in acute myocardial infarction: characterisation and clinical significance. Am Heart J. 1989; 117:86-92.
197- Oliva PB, Hammil SC, Talano JV. Effect of definition on incidence of postinfarction pericarditis: is it time of redefine postinfarction pericarditis?. Circulation. 1994; 90:1537-1541.
198- Wall TC, Califf RM, Harrelson-Woodlief L, et al. Usefulness of a pericardial friction rub after thrombolytic therapy during acute myocardial infarction in predicting amount of myocardial damage: the TAMI Study Group. Am J Cardiol. 1990; 66:1418-1421.
199- Oliva PB, Hammill SC, Talano JV. T wave changes consistent with epicardical involvement in acute myocardial infarction: observations in patients with a postinfarction pericardial effusions without clinically recognized postinfarction pericarditis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1994; 24:1073-1077.
200- Widimsky P, Gregor P. Recent atrial fibrillation in acute myocardial infarction: a sign of pericarditis. Cor Vasa. 1993; 35:230-232. 
201- Oliva PM, Hammill SC. The clinical distinction between regional postinfarction pericarditis and other causes of postinfarction chest pain: ancillary observations regarding the effect of lytic therapy upon the frequency of postinfarction pericarditis, postinfarction angina and reinfarction. Clin Cardiol. 1994; 17:471-478.
202- Berman J, Haffajee CI, Alpert JS. Therapy of symptomatic pericarditis after myocardial infarction: retrospective and prospective studies of aspirin, indomethacin, prednisone, and spontaneous resolution. Am Heart J. 1981; 101:750-753.
203- Hammerman H, Schoen FJ, Braunwald E, Kloner RA. Drug-induced expansion of infarct: morphologic and functional correlations. Circulation. 1984; 69:611-617.
204- Shahar A, Hod H, Barabash GM, Kaplinsky E, Motro M. Disappearance of a syndrome: Dressler’s syndrome in the era of thrombolysis. Cardiology. 1994; 85:255-258.
205-  Shaer DH, Leiboff RH, Katz RJ, et al. Recurrent early ischemic events after thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1987; 59:788-792.
206- Antman EM. General hospital management. In: Julian DG, Braunwald E, eds. Management of acute myocardial infarction. London. England: WB Saunders Co Ltd; 1994:42-44.
207- Ohman EM, Califf RM, Topol EJ, et al. Consequences of reocclusion after successful reperfusion therapy in acute myocardial infarction: the TAMI Study Group. Circulation. 1990; 82:781-791.
208- De Wood MA, Spores J, NotsKe R, et al. Prevalence of total coronary occlusion during the early hours of transmural myocardial infarction. N Engl. J Med. 1980; 303:897-902.
209- Early effects of tissue-type plasminogen activator added to conventional therapy of the culprit coronary lesion in patients presenting with cardiac pain at rest: results of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Ischemia (TIMI IIIA) Trial. Circulation. 1993; 87:38-52.
210- Hussain KM, Gould L, Bharathan T, et al. Arteriographic morphology and intracoronary thrombus in patients with unstable angina, non-Q wave myocardial infarction, and stable angina pectoris. Angiology. 1995; 46:181-189.
211- Keen WD, Savage MP, Fischman DL, et al. Comparison of coronary angiographic findings during the first six hours of non-W-wave and Q-wave myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1994; 74:324-328.
212- Dacanay S, Kennedy HL, Uretz E, et al. Morphological and quantitative angiographic analyses of progression of coronary stenosis: a comparison of Q-wave and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. Circulation 1994; 90:1739-1746.
213- Cannom DS, Levy W, Cohen LS. The short- and long-term prognosis of patients with transmural and non transmural myocardial infarction. Am J Med. 1976; 61:452-458.
214- Langer A, Goodman SG, Topol EJ, et al. for the Late Study Investigators. Late Assessment of Thrombolytic Efficacy (LATE) Study: prognosis in patients with non-Q wave myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996; 27:1327-1332.
215- Braunwald E, Cannon CP. Non-Q wave and ST segment depression myocardial infarction: is there a role for thrombolysis therapy?. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996; 27:1333-1334.
216- Cannon CP, Henry TD, Scheweiger MJ, et al. TIMI 9 Registry Investigators and Coordinators. Current management of ST elevation myocardial infarction and outcome of thrombolytic ineligible patients: results of the multicenter TIMI 9 registry. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995. 25:231A.Abstrac.
217- Furberg CD, Psaty BM, Mayer JV. Nifedipine: dose-related increase in mortality in patients with coronary heart disease. Circulation: 1995; 92:1326-1331.
218- Fremes SE, Goldman BS, Weisel RD, et al. Recent preoperative myocardial infarction increases the risk of surgery for unstable angina. J Card Surg. 1991; 6:2-12.
219- Gersh BJ, Chesebro JH, Braunwald E, et al. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery after thrombolytic therapy in the Thrombolysis in the Myocardial Infarction Trial. Phase II (TIMI II). J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995; 25:395-402.
220- Holmes DR, Califf RM, Topol EJ. Lessons we have learned from the GUSTO trial: Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue plasminogen Activator for Occluded Arteries. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995; 25(suppl 7):10S-17S.
221- Kereiakes DJ, Topol EJ, George BS, et al. Favorable early and long-term prognosis following coronary bypass surgery therapy for myocardial infarction: results of a multicenter trial. TAMI Study Group. Am Heart J. 1989; 118:199-207.
222- Creswell LL, Moulton MJ, Cox JL, et al. Revascularitation after acute myocardial infarction. Ann Thorac Surg. 1995; 60:19-26.
223-  The TIMI Research Group. Immediate vs delayed catheterization and angioplasty following thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction. TIMI II A results. JAMA. 1988; 260:2849-2858. 
224- Ellis SG, Mooney MR, George BS, et al. Randomized trial of late elective angioplasty versus conservative management for patients with residual stenosis after thrombolytic treatment of myocardial infarction; Treatment of Post-Thrombolytic Stenosis (TOPS) Study Group. Circulation. 1992;86:1400-1406.
225- Baim DS, Diver DJ, Feit F, et al. Coronary angioplasty performed within the thrombolysis in Myocardial infarction II study. Circulation. 1992; 85:93-105.
226- Jeremy RW, Hackworthy RA, Bautovich G, et al. Infarct artery perfusion and changes in left ventricular volume in the month after acute myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1987; 9:989-995.
227- Kersschot IE, Brugada P, Ramentol M, et al. Effects of early reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction on arrhythmias induced by programmed stimulation: a prospective, randomized study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1986; 7:1234-1242.
228- Stadius ML, Davis K, Maynard C, et al. Risk stratification for 1 year survival based on characteristics identified in the early hours of acute myocardial infarction: the Western Washington Intracoronary Streptokinase Trial. Circulation. 1986; 74:703-711.
229- Califf RM, O’Neil W, Stack RS, et al. Failure of simple clinical measurements to predict perfusion status after intravenous thrombolysis. Ann Intern Med. 1988; 108: 658-662.
230- Califf RM, Topol EJ, Stack RS, et al. Evaluation of combination thrombolytic therapy and timing of cardiac catheterization in acute myocardial infarction: results of thrombolysis and angioplasty in myocardial infarction-phase randomized trial. TAMI Study Group. Circulation. 1991; 83: 1543-1556.
231- Neuhaus KL, von Essen R, Tebbe U, et al. Improved thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction with front-loaded administration of alteplase: results of the rt-PA-APSAC patency study (TAPS). J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992; 19:885-891.